sunflower crude and refined oils food and agriculture

  • agribusiness handbook

    agribusiness handbook

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) E-mail: TCI-Eastagri@fao.org Sunflower / Crude and Refined Oils Agribusiness Handbook Sunflower Crude and Refined Oils. Sunflower Crude and Refined Oils agribusiness handbook. This handbook is part of a series of agribusiness manuals prepared by

  • the difference between refined and unrefined sunflower oil

    The difference between refined and unrefined sunflower oil

    The difference between refined and unrefined sunflower oil. The vegetable oil became a necessary part of healthy, nutritious food. The edible oil contains a lot of vitamins, which are able to keep your health and defend cells from destroying.

  • effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil

    Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for refining of sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were compared.

  • agribusiness handbook: sunflower crude and refined oils

    Agribusiness Handbook: Sunflower Crude and Refined Oils

    Agribusiness Handbook: Sunflower Crude and Refined Oils 2010. This handbook is part of a series of agribusiness manuals prepared by FAO's Investment Centre Division, in collaboration with FAO's Rural Infrastructure and Agro-Industries Division.

  • sunflower oil production line for sunflower oil plant

    Sunflower Oil Production Line for Sunflower Oil Plant

    Sunflower Oil Production Process Introduction. Sunflower oil is an excellent vegetable oil which is extracted from sunflower seeds that begin with sunflower seeds pre-treatment, pre-pressing, embryonic material leaching, wet meal desolventizing and crude sunflower oil refinery process.Sunflower seed oil is rich in linoleic acid, which helps reduce blood cholesterol levels in the body, and is

  • sunflower oil global wholesale, export, and production

    Sunflower Oil global wholesale, export, and production

    Explore wholesale, export and production prices of Sunflower Oil by major producing and exporting countries. Smarter global sourcing - Tridge We help importers around the world understand the global market of food & agriculture, get connected with the right suppliers and transact with them easily.

  • highly refined soybean oil not allergenic | health-e pro

    Highly Refined Soybean Oil Not Allergenic | Health-e Pro

    Importantly, the FALCPA exempts highly refined oils from these labeling provisions because highly refined soybean, peanut and sunflower seed oils have been clinically documented to be safe for consumption by individuals allergic to the source food. 6-9 Soy is viewed similarly in Europe, where soy protein is classified as one of the 14 most

  • sunflower crude and refined oils by duyen my - issuu

    Sunflower crude and refined oils by Duyen My - Issuu

    handbook. agribusiness. Sunflower / Crude and Refined Oils Agribusiness Handbook Please address comments and enquiries to: Investment Centre Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the

  • manufacturer producer refined sunflower oil | europages

    Manufacturer producer refined sunflower oil | Europages

    refined sunflower oil / Find a Manufacturer producer that specialises in the field: 'refined sunflower oil' oil | Import-export - food and agriculture | Olive oil | Oils and fats, edible TURKEY - Istanbul. Contact this company. SINUS HOLDING LLCplants in Ukraine. Monthly we We can offer you sunflower crude/ refined oil (in bulk or

  • sunflower oil ukraine | europages

    sunflower oil Ukraine | Europages

    sunflower oil / Find companies in the country 'Ukraine' that specialise in the 'sunflower oil' field. Browse sectors. Your company myEUROPAGES; Your searches on EUROPAGES; food and agriculture (1) Oilseed crops (4) Oils and fats, edible (4) We can offer you sunflower crude/refined oil (in bulk or bottles) of high quality and reasonable

  • fao_agbiz handbook_oilseeds_0 - handbook agribusiness

    FAO_Agbiz handbook_oilseeds_0 - handbook agribusiness

    Sunflower Crude and Refined Oils agribusiness handbook. of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country,

  • fao - agribusiness handbook: refined oils - slideshare

    FAO - agribusiness handbook: refined oils - SlideShare

    21 Figure 11: Contribution of crude sunflower oil and sunflower meal to the gross margin from sunflower seed crushing (USD) Source: Calculation based on APK Inform data 2.5 World production of sunflower oil and main producing countries Worldwide, the levels of sunflower seed production and prices are interrelated to, and determinant of

  • edible oils and fats supplier | cargill emea | cargill

    Edible oils and fats supplier | Cargill EMEA | Cargill

    Comprehensive oils product range. Customers in retail, catering and foodservice can select from a comprehensive range of oils, from the basic monoseed oils like refined sunflower oil, to olive oil of various origins and specifically designed solutions for frying and salad applications.

  • turkey refined sunflower oil, turkish refined sunflower

    Turkey Refined Sunflower Oil, Turkish Refined Sunflower

    Made in Turkey Refined Sunflower Oil Directory

  • ukraine sunflower oil wholesale, export, and production

    Ukraine Sunflower Oil wholesale, export, and production

    Explore market prices of Sunflower Oil in Ukraine. Tridge is a global trading platform specialized in Sunflower Oil. We help importers around the world to understand the global markets of Sunflower Oil, get connected with the right suppliers, and transact with them easily.

  • establishing processing factors for fat soluble

    ESTABLISHING PROCESSING FACTORS FOR FAT SOLUBLE

    FOR FAT SOLUBLE PESTICIDES IN CRUDE VEGETABLE OILS AND FATS EU Regulation No. 396/2005 sets maximum residue levels (MRLs) for raw agricultural products, like oilseeds/oil fruits. MRLs for pesticides in processed products like crude oils (and refined oils) are not specifically set in EU legislation. According to Article 20

  • alpro foods company - alpro g?da san. tic. a.?. - crude

    Alpro Foods Company - Alpro G?da San. Tic. A.?. - Crude

    Alpro Gida has started its commercial activities in food and agriculture sector in year 2000. As Turkey is located in Eurasia, where the soil is agriculturally very generous, a big portion of her GNP consists of agricultural production and particularly from the production and sales of commodities such as sunflower oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, hazelnut oil, canola oil, safflower oil, soya

  • vitamin e content of crude and refined vegetable oils

    Vitamin E content of crude and refined vegetable oils

    The oils are listed in descending order of total tocopherols; soybean, corn, and redpalm oil are high on the list, others such as cottonseed, peanut, Table 1 lists the contents of four different tocopherols determined by HPLC and the total amount of tocopherols in 10 commonly used crude and refined vegetable oils in Southern Brazil.

  • vegetable oils in food technology: composition,

    VEGETABLE OILS IN FOOD TECHNOLOGY: Composition,

    Dr Timothy H. Sanders United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Market Quality and Handling Research Unit, Box 7624, North Carolina State University, 2 VEGETABLE OILS IN FOOD TECHNOLOGY * ? ? ? * VEGETABLE OILS IN FOOD TECHNOLOGY

  • why our food is so dependent on oil - resilience

    Why Our Food is So Dependent on Oil - Resilience

    Food production and distribution, as they are organised today, would not be able to function. Moreover, the alternatives, in the form of sustainable agriculture and local food supplies, which minimise the use of crude oil, are currently unable to respond to increased demand due to low investment and capacity.

  • sunflower oil | cameroon | companies

    sunflower oil | Cameroon | companies

    sunflower oil / Find companies in the country 'Cameroon' that specialise in the 'sunflower oil' field. bottling and sale of all types of vegetable oils, in their crude and refined form. Our main products are sunflower oil and extra virgin olive oils Supplier of: Import-export - food and agriculture Find out about this company ETA OBASSI

  • your essential guide to cooking with oils | which one?

    Your Essential Guide to Cooking with Oils | Which One?

    The following cooking oils are widely available in most UK supermarkets. Vegetable oil . This is a generic term to describe seed oils such as rapeseed, soya and palm oils. A Vegetable oil can be any of these oils - or a blend of more than one. They are refined oils and

  • sunflower oil republished // wiki 2

    Sunflower oil Republished // WIKI 2

    Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil compressed from the seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Sunflower oil is commonly used in food as a frying oil, and in cosmetic formulations as an emollient. The world's total production of sunflower oil in 2014 was nearly 16 million tonnes, with Ukraine and Russia as the largest producers.

  • smoke point

    Smoke point

    The smoke point also known as burning point of an oil or fat is the temperature at which, under specific and defined conditions, it begins to produce a continuous bluish smoke that becomes clearly visible. Smoke point values can vary greatly, depending on factors such as the volume of oil utilized, the size of the container, the presence of air currents, the type and source of light as well as

  • ukraine producers sunflower oil products

    Ukraine Producers Sunflower Oil Products

    Crude (unrefined) sunflower oil has a specific, pleasant aroma, it is darker than refined, and forms a precipitate when stored. Such oil is called "live", it is fragrant, tastier and more useful. And it's great for salads. It contains vitamins A,...

  • iraq etihad food's $100 mln edible oils refinery to start

    Iraq Etihad Food's $100 mln edible oils refinery to start

    Iraq Etihad Food's $100 mln edible oils refinery to start production by year end. * Etihad to import 1 mln tonnes of crude edible oils per year sunflower oil, soybean oil, and palm oil

  • industrial base oils - provider of food, agriculture

    Industrial Base Oils - Provider of food, agriculture

    Industrial Base Oils. Crude Soybean Oil: Technical grade crude soybean oil: Crude Degummed Soybean Oil: Degummed but not refined: Soybean Oil: Refined, bleached, deodorized (RBD) Methyl Soyate: Soybean oil methyl ester: Sunflower Oil: Refined, bleached, winterized, deodorized (RBWD) Coconut Oil: Refined, bleached, deodorized (RBD) Palm Oil:

  • sunflower oil plant oil sunflower in russia - saleselite.nl

    sunflower oil plant oil sunflower in russia - saleselite.nl

    Browse sectors. Your integrated agriculture industry holding company in Supplier of: Vegetable oils | refined sunflower oil | refined sunflower and vegetable oils Productinformation Aloe vera is cactus-like plant belonging to the lily Russia Crude Sunflower Oil,Crude Sunflower Oil from Based on data from the Food and Agriculture

  • alpro foods company - alpro g?da san. tic. a.?. - crude

    Alpro Foods Company - Alpro G?da San. Tic. A.?. - Crude

    Alpro Gida has started its commercial activities in food and agriculture sector in year 2000. As Turkey is located in Eurasia, where the soil is agriculturally very generous, a big portion of her GNP consists of agricultural production and particularly from the production and sales of commodities such as sunflower oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, hazelnut oil, canola oil, safflower oil, soya

  • [doc]<h3>list of acronyms - tzdpg.or.tz

    [DOC]

    List of Acronyms - tzdpg.or.tz

    · Web view

    The demand for edible oils in Tanzania is estimated to be about 350,000 tons a year and growing in line with population growth of 2.9% and increasing standards of living. Sixty per cent of demand is met from imported Crude Palm Oil (CPO), that is free of import duty and is in competition with local production of sunflower oil.

  • fapc-197 edible oil quality » osu fact sheets

    FAPC-197 Edible Oil Quality » OSU Fact Sheets

    Voluntary industry standard for FFA content in refined edible oil is ≤0.05 percent (based on oil weight). In the food industry, frying oils with FFA content exceeding 2 percent are either discarded or fresh oil is added to bring the FFA content down. Acid value Acid Value is an important indicator of vegetable oil

  • fried food risks: toxic aldehydes detected in reheated oil

    Fried food risks: Toxic aldehydes detected in reheated oil

    The research, which is published in the Food Chemistry journal, involved heating three types of oil (olive, sunflower and flaxseeds) in an industrial deep fryer at 190 ºC. This was carried out

  • (pdf) edible oil adulterations: current issues, detection

    (PDF) Edible oil adulterations: Current issues, detection

    science of food and agriculture. 2017. (such as soybean oil, coconut oil, and olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil), crude oil and the monthly exchange rate. sunflower oil, palm oil

  • usda commodity requirements bot2 bulk oil and

    USDA COMMODITY REQUIREMENTS BOT2 BULK OIL AND

    USDA COMMODITY REQUIREMENTS . BOT2 . BULK OIL AND TALLOW . FOR USE IN . INTERNATIONAL FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS . Section 1.4 Crude Sunflower Seed Oil (Including Nusun®) _____ 3 Fully Refined Soybean Oil sold for export shall be pure soybean oil. It

  • eastagri projects eastagri projects

    EastAgri Projects EastAgri Projects

    EastAgri Projects EastAgri Projects Country Country - all countries - *Regional Albania Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Georgia Hungary Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Mongolia Montenegro Poland Republic of Moldova Romania Russia Serbia Slovak Republic Slovenia Tajikistan Turkey

  • suppliers refined sunflower oil purchase quote | europages

    suppliers refined sunflower oil purchase quote | Europages

    Find and request a quote for refined sunflower oil from companies that specialise in the field of: 'refined sunflower oil' Import-export - food and agriculture | rice | canned vegetables and paste Find out about this company ( Nestle Nido, Cerelec, Guigoz & Aptamil and Bebelac) Refined and Crude Sunflower oil, Hazelnuts, Wheat, Sugar

  • the environmental impact of palm oil and other vegetable

    The Environmental Impact of Palm Oil and Other Vegetable

    agriculture in the growing and production of refined vegetable oils. These as the key raw materials or ingredients for a large number of our products and derived from crops including palm, coconut, rapeseed, soyabean, sunflower and olive oil. AGRICULTURAL PROCESSES Developing a model of crop production presents some significant

  • raing group ? rain group is a trading company specialized

    raing group ? Rain Group is a trading company specialized

    Rain Group is a trading company specialized in food and agricultural commodities. We trade different commodities,including: Edible oil like crude sunflower oil and crude rapeseed oil

  • industrial base oils - provider of food, agriculture

    Industrial Base Oils - Provider of food, agriculture

    Industrial Base Oils. Crude Soybean Oil: Technical grade crude soybean oil: Crude Degummed Soybean Oil: Degummed but not refined: Soybean Oil: Refined, bleached, deodorized (RBD) Methyl Soyate: Soybean oil methyl ester: Sunflower Oil: Refined, bleached, winterized, deodorized (RBWD) Coconut Oil: Refined, bleached, deodorized (RBD) Palm Oil:

  • ukraine producers sunflower oil products

    Ukraine Producers Sunflower Oil Products

    Crude (unrefined) sunflower oil has a specific, pleasant aroma, it is darker than refined, and forms a precipitate when stored. Such oil is called "live", it is fragrant, tastier and more useful. And it's great for salads. It contains vitamins A,...

  • iraq etihad food's $100 mln edible oils refinery to start

    Iraq Etihad Food's $100 mln edible oils refinery to start

    Iraq Etihad Food's $100 mln edible oils refinery to start production by year end. * Etihad to import 1 mln tonnes of crude edible oils per year sunflower oil, soybean oil, and palm oil

  • sunflower oil plant oil sunflower in russia - saleselite.nl

    sunflower oil plant oil sunflower in russia - saleselite.nl

    Browse sectors. Your integrated agriculture industry holding company in Supplier of: Vegetable oils | refined sunflower oil | refined sunflower and vegetable oils Productinformation Aloe vera is cactus-like plant belonging to the lily Russia Crude Sunflower Oil,Crude Sunflower Oil from Based on data from the Food and Agriculture

  • sunflower seed - an overview | sciencedirect topics

    Sunflower Seed - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

    Since NOL is more or less proportional to the FFA being neutralized, the yield advantage of physical refining is more significant for high FFA crude oils, such as palm oil, than for low FFA crude oils, such as soybean oil (Dijkstra, 2013b). Crude sunflower seed oil regularly has an FFA content of over 1% and is therefore a prime candidate for

  • new technology coconut oil production plant | sunflower

    new technology coconut oil production plant | sunflower

    latest technology crude coconut oil refining machine plant | oil press for sale Ukraine sunflower seed oil extraction machine Send Inquiry Crude oil. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Of the world production of coconut, more than 50 percent is processed into copra. While aviability is site-specific, women and

  • volatile components of several virgin and refined oils

    Volatile components of several virgin and refined oils

    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Volume 91, Issue 10, pages 1871 Goicoechea, E. and Guillen, M. D. (2011), Volatile components of several virgin and refined oils differing in their botanical origin. J. Sci. Food Agric., 91: 1871?1884. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4400 linseed and walnut oils, while the refined oils were sunflower

  • list of acronyms - tzdpg.or.tz

    List of Acronyms - tzdpg.or.tz

    · Web view

    The demand for edible oils in Tanzania is estimated to be about 350,000 tons a year and growing in line with population growth of 2.9% and increasing standards of living. Sixty per cent of demand is met from imported Crude Palm Oil (CPO), that is free of import duty and is in competition with local production of sunflower oil.

  • alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentration

    Alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentration

    Alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentration in vegetable oils the purpose of the vegetable oils refining is to eliminate all the impurities in crude oils in order to get a vegetable oil of good quality (Medina-Juárez et al., 2000). the canola and corn oils had been classified as a food source and the sunflower oil was

  • oil recovery and lecithin production using water degumming

    Oil recovery and lecithin production using water degumming

    Oil recovery and lecithin production using water degumming sludge of crude soybean oils Article in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 88(14):2460 - 2466 · November 2008 with 3,472 Reads

  • antioxidant activity of ginger extract in sunflower oil

    Antioxidant activity of ginger extract in sunflower oil

    The antioxidant activity of dichloromethane extract from ginger was evaluated during 6 months of storage of refined sunflower oil at 25 and 45 °C. Free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (POV) and iodine value (IV) were used as criteria to assess ginger extract as an antioxidant.

  • a global demand analysis of vegetable oils for food

    A Global Demand Analysis of Vegetable Oils for Food

    vegetable oils: soybean oil, rape and mustard oil (including canola oil), palm oil, and sunflower oil.1 These four vegetable oils dominate more than 70% of global vegetable oils consumption for food use during the 2000’s (table 1). For each of these vegetable oils, global own-price and cross-

  • compositions of sunf lower, nusun (mid -ol eic

    COMPOSITIONS OF SUNF LOWER, NUSUN (MID -OL EIC

    COMPOSITIONS OF SUNF LOWER, NUSUN (MID -OL EIC SUNFLOWER) AND HIGH -OLEIC SUNFLOWER OILS KATHLEEN WARNER 1, BRADY VICK 2, LARRY KLEINGARTNER 3, RUTH ISAAK , AND KATHI DOROFF 4 1 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, National Center for A gricultural Utilization Research, Peoria , IL 61604

  • highly refined soybean oil not allergenic

    Highly Refined Soybean Oil Not Allergenic

    Importantly, the FALCPA exempts highly refined oils from these labeling provisions because highly refined soybean, peanut and sunflower seed oils have been clinically documented to be safe for consumption by individuals allergic to the source food.6-9Soy is viewed similarly in Europe, where soy protein is classified as one of the 14 most common

  • highly refined soybean oil not allergenic

    Highly Refined Soybean Oil Not Allergenic

    Importantly, the FALCPA exempts highly refined oils from these labeling provisions because highly refined soybean, peanut and sunflower seed oils have been clinically documented to be safe for consumption by individuals allergic to the source food.6-9Soy is viewed similarly in Europe, where soy protein is classified as one of the 14 most common

  • raing group ? rain group is a trading company specialized

    raing group ? Rain Group is a trading company specialized

    Rain Group is a trading company specialized in food and agricultural commodities. We trade different commodities,including: Edible oil like crude sunflower oil and crude rapeseed oil

  • sunflower crushing ukraine factories - edu-geo.it

    sunflower crushing ukraine factories - edu-geo.it

    Saipol is the French leader in oilseed crushing and vegetable oil refining In 2010, Saipol holds a crushing capacity of 4 million tons of rapeseed and sunflower seed, crude, neutral and refined oil for the global agri-food market, industries, its subsidiary Expur, and has a reprepresentative office in Ukraine, in Kiev. Contact Supplier

  • scientific assistance to assess the detoxification process

    Scientific assistance to assess the detoxification process

    The crude sunflower oil and hexane were separated by distillation. The applicant indicated that the crude oil, as well as the co?roducts resulting of the processing of this oil, could only be used for technical purposes. No information was provided regarding the disposal or

  • sunflower oil company list in romania page2

    Sunflower Oil company list in Romania PAGE2

    Our company, LEVIROM S.r.l from Romania is interested in acquisition of 2000T/month pure refined sunflower oil. The quantities will increase probably after the first month if collaboration work without problems.Our intention to have a long term

  • alpro foods company - alpro g?da san. tic. a.?. - crude

    Alpro Foods Company - Alpro G?da San. Tic. A.?. - Crude

    Alpro Gida has started its commercial activities in food and agriculture sector in year 2000. As Turkey is located in Eurasia, where the soil is agriculturally very generous, a big portion of her GNP consists of agricultural production and particularly from the production and sales of commodities such as sunflower oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, hazelnut oil, canola oil, safflower oil, soya

  • presence of phytosterol oxides in crude vegetable oils

    Presence of Phytosterol Oxides in Crude Vegetable Oils

    The content of phytosterol oxidation products was determined in samples of crude vegetable oils: peanut, sunflower, maize, palm nut, and lampante olive oils that were intended for refining and not for direct consumption. The 7α- and 7β-hydroxy derivatives of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol and the 7-keto-β-sitosterol were the principal phytosterol oxides found in almost all of

  • sunflower oil, sunflower oil suppliers and manufacturers

    Sunflower Oil, Sunflower Oil Suppliers and Manufacturers

    Refined sunflower oil is perfectly clean oil, which preserves all the nutrients during the production process. Margarine and cooking fats are made of refined sunflower oil by hydrogenation. Refined sunflower oil is also used in manufacturing of canned food, as

  • notice of issuance 2018-2019 grade and labeling

    NOTICE OF ISSUANCE 2018-2019 Grade and Labeling

    CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 2018-2019 Grade and Labeling Standards for Olive Oil, Refined-Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil 1 1.0 SCOPE Pursuant to Chapter 29, Part 2, Division 22 of the California Food and Agricultural Code

  • cottonseed oil and food safety

    Cottonseed Oil and Food Safety

    Reduce the use of oils/fats when preparing food because excessive intake of oils/fats, regardless of the type, increases risk of overweight and obesity. Advice to the Trade. Label food products properly. Source cooking oils from reliable suppliers. Make sure the cottonseed oil used is refined

  • why our food is so dependent on oil - resilience

    Why Our Food is So Dependent on Oil - Resilience

    Food production and distribution, as they are organised today, would not be able to function. Moreover, the alternatives, in the form of sustainable agriculture and local food supplies, which minimise the use of crude oil, are currently unable to respond to increased demand due to low investment and capacity.

  • oxidation of sunflower oil during storage - semantic scholar

    Oxidation of sunflower oil during storage - Semantic Scholar

    Effects of temperature and oxygen concentration on oxidative deterioration during storage of crude sunflower oils, obtained by pressing and solvent extraction, were studied. Oxidation was monitored through several analytical and chromatographic methods that determine chemical and physical changes or analyze specific oxidation compounds at different stages of the process: peroxide value, p

  • government hikes import duty on crude, refined edible oil

    Government hikes import duty on crude, refined edible oil

    Earlier, both the ministries of food and agriculture had recommended an increase in import duty of refined edible oil to 15 per cent and 12.5 per cent respectively. On crude edible oil, both the ministries recommended that import duty be increased to 5 per cent from the current 2.5 per cent.

  • russian sunflower seed oil production in dubai

    russian sunflower seed oil production in dubai

    An alternative to crushing sunflower seed is to import crude oil from a low cost country (Ukraine, Russia) and refine it locally. Turkey is very successful in this respect. It imports over 300,000 ton crude oil from Russia and Ukraine, and exports over 100,000 refined oil